NRC Word-Emotion Association Lexicon (aka EmoLex)

The NRC Emotion Lexicon is a list of English words and their associations with eight basic emotions (anger, fear, anticipation, trust, surprise, sadness, joy, and disgust) and two sentiments (negative and positive). The annotations were manually done by crowdsourcing.


Association Lexicon


# of Terms Categories Association Scores Method of Creation Papers
Word-Emotion and Word-Sentiment Association Lexicon

NRC Word-Emotion Association Lexicon
(also called EmoLex)





14,182 unigrams (words)

sentiments: negative, positive
emotions: anger, anticipation, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise, trust
0 (not associated) or 1 (associated)

Manual: By crowdsourcing on Mechanical Turk.

Domain: General

Crowdsourcing a Word-Emotion Association Lexicon, Saif Mohammad and Peter Turney, Computational Intelligence, 29 (3), 436-465, 2013.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX

Emotions Evoked by Common Words and Phrases: Using Mechanical Turk to Create an Emotion Lexicon
, Saif Mohammad and Peter Turney, In Proceedings of the NAACL-HLT 2010 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Analysis and Generation of Emotion in Text, June 2010, LA, California.
Abstract    Paper (pdf)    Presentation

~25,000 senses*

not associated, weakly, moderately, or strongly associated

(Access various other word-emotion, word sentiment, and word-colour lexicons here.)

NRC Emotion Lexicon in Other Languages

The NRC Emotion Lexicon has affect annotations for English words. Despite some cultural differences, it has been shown that a majority of affective norms are stable across languages. Thus we provide versions of the lexicon in over twenty languages by translating the English terms using Google Translate (July 2015). Click here to download. We currently have translations into these languages: Arabic, Basque, Bengali, Catalan, Chinese, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Irish, Japanese, Latin, Marathi, Persian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Somali, Spanish, Sudanese, Swahili, Swedish, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukranian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Welsh, and Zulu. Email me if interested in a language not listed here.

See README of the NRC Emotion Lexicon for more details about the lexicon and the terms of use.

Note that some translations by Google Translate may be incorrect or they may simply be transliterations of the original English terms. If you have a list of corrections for any language, we will be happy to hear from you.


An Interactive Visualizer

Terms of use:
  • The lexicons mentioned in this page are available for direct download and can be used freely for research purposes.
  • The papers listed next to the lexicons provide details of the creation and use. If you use a lexicon, then please cite the associated papers.
  • If interested in commercial use of any of these lexicons, send email to the contact.
  • If you use a lexicon in a product or application, then please credit the authors and NRC appropriately. Also, if you send us an email, we will be thrilled to know about how you have used the lexicon.
  • Rather than redistributing the data, please direct interested parties to this page.
  • National Research Council Canada (NRC) disclaims any responsibility for the use of the lexicons listed here and does not provide technical support. However, the contact listed above will be happy to respond to queries and clarifications.
We will be happy to hear from you, especially if:
  • you give us feedback regarding these lexicons.
  • you tell us how you have (or plan to) use the lexicons.
  • you are interested in having us analyze your data for sentiment, emotion, and other affectual information.
  • you are interested in a collaborative research project. We also regularly hire graduate students for research internships.